Re: multi-user vs graphical mode (was startx equivalent for Wayland)

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On Mon, Sep 25, 2023 at 2:34 AM Dave Close <dave@xxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
I wrote:

> I detest a graphical login and insist on running in multi-user mode
> (old runlevel 3). To start an X11 session after login, I can use the
> startx command. But I haven't found an equivalent command to start a
> Wayland session.

Have you tried <>:
if [[ -z $DISPLAY && $(tty) == /dev/tty1 && $XDG_SESSION_TYPE == tty ]]; then
  MOZ_ENABLE_WAYLAND=1 QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland XDG_SESSION_TYPE=wayland exec dbus-run-session gnome-session

The article has note that "The factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed."

Tim via users wrote:

>I don't really see the advantage in not starting a desktop session,
>just to log in, then starting one afterwards.  There must be something
>I'm missing.

The principal advantage is that I get to see what the system is doing
during boot and login. I strongly dislike any interface that tries
to make things "simple" by hiding what it does. I don't trust things
that are hidden from view.

I always remove the "rhbg quiet",  journactl is a big improvement over
trying to figure out which log file is relevant to a problem.
And I've probably used computers longer than most of us, having started
with an IBM 7094 and an 029 keypunch.

As an undergraduate in 1968 I had access to <>
using a teletype terminal and saving programs on paper tape.  It wasn't until grad school in 1972 that I met
a keypunch.
There are certainly good use
cases for a graphic application, especially for things I don't do
often and don't remember the tricks. But every graphic system has
its own ways whereas the command line uses only things on a standard
These days, many linux users never use the command-line until something breaks
and the smartphone images they post cut off key parts of error messages. 

Linux is community driven.  The community now includes kids whose first
experience was a smartphone.  I used to run "practical" sessions for a
workshop where a linux application was the only implementation of the theory
being taught. We found is necessary to spend the first two afternoons introducing
the command-line so later sessions weren't dominated by problems with linux.

The community benefits when experienced users regularly use the most
common configuration (e.g., Fedora Workstation with Wayland) so they can
identify issues and pitfalls as well as encouraging new users to learn POSIX
shell commands in a terminal.
George N. White III

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