Re: Delays, clocks, timers, hrtimers, etc

[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]


On Fri, Feb 06, 2015 at 01:03:19PM -0800, Mason wrote:
> Russell King - ARM Linux wrote:
> >Mason wrote:
> >
> >>Hmmm, I'm confused (again).
> >>
> >>CONFIG_CLKSRC_ARM_GLOBAL_TIMER_SCHED_CLOCK means "use the global timer
> >>for the scheduler clock", right? In that case, are the local timers
> >>unused by Linux?
> >>
> >>   sched_clock_register(gt_sched_clock_read, 64, gt_clk_rate);
> >>#endif
> >>
> >>Is there generic code to set up local timers? (If so, where?)
> >>sched_clock_register only seems to appear in machine-specific code.
> >>
> >>What are the pros/cons of global timer vs local timers?
> >>Or is such a question irrelevant?
> >>(Because they are used for different purposes?)
> >
> >Correct.
> >
> >The sched_clock itself is about providing the scheduler with a stable,
> >monotonically increasing 64-bit nanosecond value which it can use to
> >account for the passing of time (so it can accurately measure how long
> >a thread is running for, and make a decision when to pre-empt it.)
> >
> >Local timers are used to set "alarms" to cause an interrupt at a certain
> >point in time to do something (like, run the scheduler to switch from
> >the current thread to another thread.)  It can also be used to update
> >the current time of day as well.
> >
> >Global timers are used as a fallback when local timers are not available,
> >and are less efficient - the CPU receiving the global timer interrupt
> >has to broadcast the interrupt to other CPUs, and it also has to take
> >account of the earliest event across all CPUs.
> >
> >There is a fourth "timer" which is used as a monotonically incrementing
> >counter - this is called the "clocksource".  This is used to maintain
> >the kernel's time-of-day.  This may be the same as the sched_clock.
> Where is this sched_clock set up?

What do you mean "set up" ?

> I see sched_clock_register() in kernel/time/sched_clock.c

Correct, and most users use sched_clock_register() rather than

> setup_sched_clock() wraps sched_clock_register() but I only see one
> user of setup_sched_clock() -- arch/arm/mach-footbridge

Probably hasn't been converted to use sched_clock_register() yet.

> sched_clock_postinit() is used to set up an acceptable default,
> I suppose? (i.e. jiffy_sched_clock_read)

That's to finish off the sched clock initialisation at a point where we
can do so (which should be after sched_clock_register() has been called.)

> But this still needs a time source (an actual crystal). I must be
> missing something important from the big picture.

All that sched_clock cares about is reading a value from a counter which
increments (or decrements) at a single, uniform, known rate, and the
code internal to sched_clock() converts that to a 64-bit nanosecond

> >>There is trouble in paradise. I was planning to give the global timer a try,
> >>instead of the platform-specific timer, until I noticed: "The global timer
> >>is clocked by PERIPHCLK." And it turns PERIPHCLK is connected to the SoC's
> >>CPU_CLK (the clock that drives the CPU cores); the same clock that is managed
> >>by cpufreq. I imagine it's double plus ungood for precise time-keeping to
> >>have frequency changes of the clocksource input?
> >
> >Yes and no.  You can use that for local timers and/or a global timer, but
> >you really don't want to use that for the sched_clock nor clocksource as
> >these are really the fundamentals of time keeping.  I'd advise against
> >using a timer derived from the CPU clock in general though, but if you
> >have no other possible timers, then it has to do.
> I do have several platform-specific timers available, but I was
> considering using "standard" architected resources to minimize
> the code needed for the port.
> Also, reading Cortex-A9 MPCore Technical Reference Manual, section
> 5.1 Clocks, I see that, by definition, PERIPHCLK is tied to CLK
> (the main clock). This means that, by definition, when using cpufreq,
> CLK will change, thus PERIPHCLK will necessarily be variable too.
> So the question I am trying to answer is: how do other SoCs use the
> Cortex A9 global timer and local timers, along with cpufreq, and
> make everything work correctly?

You can use them for local and global timers, provided you have a stable
clocksource and sched_clock (which can both be derived from the same

FTTC broadband for 0.8mile line: currently at 10.5Mbps down 400kbps up
according to
To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe cpufreq" in
the body of a message to majordomo@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
More majordomo info at

[Index of Archives]     [Linux Kernel Devel]     [Linux USB Devel]     [Linux Audio Users]     [Yosemite Forum]     [Linux SCSI]

  Powered by Linux