+ mm-take-a-page-reference-when-removing-device-exclusive-entries.patch added to mm-hotfixes-unstable branch

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The patch titled
     Subject: mm: take a page reference when removing device exclusive entries
has been added to the -mm mm-hotfixes-unstable branch.  Its filename is

This patch will shortly appear at

This patch will later appear in the mm-hotfixes-unstable branch at

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From: Alistair Popple <apopple@xxxxxxxxxx>
Subject: mm: take a page reference when removing device exclusive entries
Date: Thu, 30 Mar 2023 12:25:19 +1100

Device exclusive page table entries are used to prevent CPU access to a
page whilst it is being accessed from a device.  Typically this is used to
implement atomic operations when the underlying bus does not support
atomic access.  When a CPU thread encounters a device exclusive entry it
locks the page and restores the original entry after calling mmu notifiers
to signal drivers that exclusive access is no longer available.

The device exclusive entry holds a reference to the page making it safe to
access the struct page whilst the entry is present.  However the fault
handling code does not hold the PTL when taking the page lock.  This means
if there are multiple threads faulting concurrently on the device
exclusive entry one will remove the entry whilst others will wait on the
page lock without holding a reference.

This can lead to threads locking or waiting on a folio with a zero
refcount.  Whilst mmap_lock prevents the pages getting freed via munmap()
they may still be freed by a migration.  This leads to warnings such as
PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_FREE due to the page being locked when the refcount
drops to zero.

Fix this by trying to take a reference on the folio before locking it. 
The code already checks the PTE under the PTL and aborts if the entry is
no longer there.  It is also possible the folio has been unmapped, freed
and re-allocated allowing a reference to be taken on an unrelated folio. 
This case is also detected by the PTE check and the folio is unlocked
without further changes.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20230330012519.804116-1-apopple@xxxxxxxxxx
Fixes: b756a3b5e7ea ("mm: device exclusive memory access")
Signed-off-by: Alistair Popple <apopple@xxxxxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: Ralph Campbell <rcampbell@xxxxxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: John Hubbard <jhubbard@xxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Matthew Wilcox (Oracle) <willy@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: <stable@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>

 mm/memory.c |   16 +++++++++++++++-
 1 file changed, 15 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

--- a/mm/memory.c~mm-take-a-page-reference-when-removing-device-exclusive-entries
+++ a/mm/memory.c
@@ -3563,8 +3563,21 @@ static vm_fault_t remove_device_exclusiv
 	struct vm_area_struct *vma = vmf->vma;
 	struct mmu_notifier_range range;
-	if (!folio_lock_or_retry(folio, vma->vm_mm, vmf->flags))
+	/*
+	 * We need a reference to lock the folio because we don't hold
+	 * the PTL so a racing thread can remove the device-exclusive
+	 * entry and unmap it. If the folio is free the entry must
+	 * have been removed already. If it happens to have already
+	 * been re-allocated after being freed all we do is lock and
+	 * unlock it.
+	 */
+	if (!folio_try_get(folio))
+		return 0;
+	if (!folio_lock_or_retry(folio, vma->vm_mm, vmf->flags)) {
+		folio_put(folio);
 		return VM_FAULT_RETRY;
+	}
 	mmu_notifier_range_init_owner(&range, MMU_NOTIFY_EXCLUSIVE, 0,
 				vma->vm_mm, vmf->address & PAGE_MASK,
 				(vmf->address & PAGE_MASK) + PAGE_SIZE, NULL);
@@ -3577,6 +3590,7 @@ static vm_fault_t remove_device_exclusiv
 	pte_unmap_unlock(vmf->pte, vmf->ptl);
+	folio_put(folio);
 	return 0;

Patches currently in -mm which might be from apopple@xxxxxxxxxx are


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