[PATCH v3] xfs: load uncached unlinked inodes into memory on demand

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From: Darrick J. Wong <djwong@xxxxxxxxxx>

shrikanth hegde reports that filesystems fail shortly after mount with
the following failure:

	WARNING: CPU: 56 PID: 12450 at fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c:1839 xfs_iunlink_lookup+0x58/0x80 [xfs]

This of course is the WARN_ON_ONCE in xfs_iunlink_lookup:

	ip = radix_tree_lookup(&pag->pag_ici_root, agino);
	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!ip || !ip->i_ino)) { ... }

>From diagnostic data collected by the bug reporters, it would appear
that we cleanly mounted a filesystem that contained unlinked inodes.
Unlinked inodes are only processed as a final step of log recovery,
which means that clean mounts do not process the unlinked list at all.

Prior to the introduction of the incore unlinked lists, this wasn't a
problem because the unlink code would (very expensively) traverse the
entire ondisk metadata iunlink chain to keep things up to date.
However, the incore unlinked list code complains when it realizes that
it is out of sync with the ondisk metadata and shuts down the fs, which
is bad.

Ritesh proposed to solve this problem by unconditionally parsing the
unlinked lists at mount time, but this imposes a mount time cost for
every filesystem to catch something that should be very infrequent.
Instead, let's target the places where we can encounter a next_unlinked
pointer that refers to an inode that is not in cache, and load it into

Note: This patch does not address the problem of iget loading an inode
from the middle of the iunlink list and needing to set i_prev_unlinked

Eric Sandeen adds:

"One way to end up in this situation is to have at one point run a very
old kernel which did not contain this commit, merged in kernel v4.14:

commit 6f4a1eefdd0ad4561543270a7fceadabcca075dd
Author: Eric Sandeen <sandeen@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date:   Tue Aug 8 18:21:49 2017 -0700

    xfs: toggle readonly state around xfs_log_mount_finish

    When we do log recovery on a readonly mount, unlinked inode
    processing does not happen due to the readonly checks in
    xfs_inactive(), which are trying to prevent any I/O on a
    readonly mount.

    This is misguided - we do I/O on readonly mounts all the time,
    for consistency; for example, log recovery.  So do the same
    RDONLY flag twiddling around xfs_log_mount_finish() as we
    do around xfs_log_mount(), for the same reason.

    This all cries out for a big rework but for now this is a
    simple fix to an obvious problem.

    Signed-off-by: Eric Sandeen <sandeen@xxxxxxxxxx>
    Reviewed-by: Brian Foster <bfoster@xxxxxxxxxx>
    Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@xxxxxx>
    Reviewed-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@xxxxxxxxxx>
    Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@xxxxxxxxxx>

"so if you:

1) Crash with unlinked inodes
2) mount -o ro <recovers log but skips unlinked inode recovery>
3) mount -o remount,rw
4) umount <writes clean log record>

"You now have a filesystem with on-disk unlinked inodes and a clean log,
and those inodes won't get cleaned up until log recovery runs again or
xfs_repair is run.

"And in testing an old OS (RHEL7) it does seem that the root filesystem
goes through a mount -o ro, mount -o remount,rw transition at boot time.
So this situation may be somewhat common."

Reported-by: shrikanth hegde <sshegde@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Triaged-by: Ritesh Harjani <ritesh.list@xxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <djwong@xxxxxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: Dave Chinner <dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>
Reviewed-by: Bill O'Donnell <bodonnel@xxxxxxxxxx>
v3: add RVB tags and historical context from sandeen
v2: log that we're doing runtime recovery, dont mess with DONTCACHE,
    and actually return ENOLINK
 fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c |   75 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
 fs/xfs/xfs_trace.h |   25 +++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 96 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c b/fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c
index 6ee266be45d4..2942002560b5 100644
--- a/fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c
+++ b/fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c
@@ -1829,12 +1829,17 @@ xfs_iunlink_lookup(
 	ip = radix_tree_lookup(&pag->pag_ici_root, agino);
+	if (!ip) {
+		/* Caller can handle inode not being in memory. */
+		rcu_read_unlock();
+		return NULL;
+	}
-	 * Inode not in memory or in RCU freeing limbo should not happen.
-	 * Warn about this and let the caller handle the failure.
+	 * Inode in RCU freeing limbo should not happen.  Warn about this and
+	 * let the caller handle the failure.
-	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!ip || !ip->i_ino)) {
+	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!ip->i_ino)) {
 		return NULL;
@@ -1858,7 +1863,8 @@ xfs_iunlink_update_backref(
 	ip = xfs_iunlink_lookup(pag, next_agino);
 	if (!ip)
-		return -EFSCORRUPTED;
+		return -ENOLINK;
 	ip->i_prev_unlinked = prev_agino;
 	return 0;
@@ -1902,6 +1908,62 @@ xfs_iunlink_update_bucket(
 	return 0;
+ * Load the inode @next_agino into the cache and set its prev_unlinked pointer
+ * to @prev_agino.  Caller must hold the AGI to synchronize with other changes
+ * to the unlinked list.
+ */
+	struct xfs_trans	*tp,
+	struct xfs_buf		*agibp,
+	xfs_agino_t		prev_agino,
+	xfs_agino_t		next_agino)
+	struct xfs_perag	*pag = agibp->b_pag;
+	struct xfs_mount	*mp = pag->pag_mount;
+	struct xfs_inode	*next_ip = NULL;
+	xfs_ino_t		ino;
+	int			error;
+	ASSERT(next_agino != NULLAGINO);
+#ifdef DEBUG
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	next_ip = radix_tree_lookup(&pag->pag_ici_root, next_agino);
+	ASSERT(next_ip == NULL);
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+	xfs_info_ratelimited(mp,
+ "Found unrecovered unlinked inode 0x%x in AG 0x%x.  Initiating recovery.",
+			next_agino, pag->pag_agno);
+	/*
+	 * Use an untrusted lookup just to be cautious in case the AGI has been
+	 * corrupted and now points at a free inode.  That shouldn't happen,
+	 * but we'd rather shut down now since we're already running in a weird
+	 * situation.
+	 */
+	ino = XFS_AGINO_TO_INO(mp, pag->pag_agno, next_agino);
+	error = xfs_iget(mp, tp, ino, XFS_IGET_UNTRUSTED, 0, &next_ip);
+	if (error)
+		return error;
+	/* If this is not an unlinked inode, something is very wrong. */
+	if (VFS_I(next_ip)->i_nlink != 0) {
+		error = -EFSCORRUPTED;
+		goto rele;
+	}
+	next_ip->i_prev_unlinked = prev_agino;
+	trace_xfs_iunlink_reload_next(next_ip);
+	ASSERT(!(VFS_I(next_ip)->i_state & I_DONTCACHE));
+	xfs_irele(next_ip);
+	return error;
 static int
 	struct xfs_trans	*tp,
@@ -1933,6 +1995,8 @@ xfs_iunlink_insert_inode(
 	 * inode.
 	error = xfs_iunlink_update_backref(pag, agino, next_agino);
+	if (error == -ENOLINK)
+		error = xfs_iunlink_reload_next(tp, agibp, agino, next_agino);
 	if (error)
 		return error;
@@ -2027,6 +2091,9 @@ xfs_iunlink_remove_inode(
 	error = xfs_iunlink_update_backref(pag, ip->i_prev_unlinked,
+	if (error == -ENOLINK)
+		error = xfs_iunlink_reload_next(tp, agibp, ip->i_prev_unlinked,
+				ip->i_next_unlinked);
 	if (error)
 		return error;
diff --git a/fs/xfs/xfs_trace.h b/fs/xfs/xfs_trace.h
index 36bd42ed9ec8..f4e46bac9b91 100644
--- a/fs/xfs/xfs_trace.h
+++ b/fs/xfs/xfs_trace.h
@@ -3832,6 +3832,31 @@ TRACE_EVENT(xfs_iunlink_update_dinode,
+	TP_PROTO(struct xfs_inode *ip),
+	TP_ARGS(ip),
+	TP_STRUCT__entry(
+		__field(dev_t, dev)
+		__field(xfs_agnumber_t, agno)
+		__field(xfs_agino_t, agino)
+		__field(xfs_agino_t, prev_agino)
+		__field(xfs_agino_t, next_agino)
+	),
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__entry->dev = ip->i_mount->m_super->s_dev;
+		__entry->agno = XFS_INO_TO_AGNO(ip->i_mount, ip->i_ino);
+		__entry->agino = XFS_INO_TO_AGINO(ip->i_mount, ip->i_ino);
+		__entry->prev_agino = ip->i_prev_unlinked;
+		__entry->next_agino = ip->i_next_unlinked;
+	),
+	TP_printk("dev %d:%d agno 0x%x agino 0x%x prev_unlinked 0x%x next_unlinked 0x%x",
+		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev),
+		  __entry->agno,
+		  __entry->agino,
+		  __entry->prev_agino,
+		  __entry->next_agino)
 	TP_PROTO(struct xfs_inode *ip),

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