[PATCH 24/29] mm: vmscan: make global slab shrink lockless

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The shrinker_rwsem is a global read-write lock in
shrinkers subsystem, which protects most operations
such as slab shrink, registration and unregistration
of shrinkers, etc. This can easily cause problems in
the following cases.

1) When the memory pressure is high and there are many
   filesystems mounted or unmounted at the same time,
   slab shrink will be affected (down_read_trylock()

   Such as the real workload mentioned by Kirill Tkhai:

   One of the real workloads from my experience is start
   of an overcommitted node containing many starting
   containers after node crash (or many resuming containers
   after reboot for kernel update). In these cases memory
   pressure is huge, and the node goes round in long reclaim.

2) If a shrinker is blocked (such as the case mentioned
   in [1]) and a writer comes in (such as mount a fs),
   then this writer will be blocked and cause all
   subsequent shrinker-related operations to be blocked.

Even if there is no competitor when shrinking slab, there
may still be a problem. If we have a long shrinker list
and we do not reclaim enough memory with each shrinker,
then the down_read_trylock() may be called with high
frequency. Because of the poor multicore scalability of
atomic operations, this can lead to a significant drop
in IPC (instructions per cycle).

We used to implement the lockless slab shrink with
SRCU [1], but then kernel test robot reported -88.8%
regression in stress-ng.ramfs.ops_per_sec test case [2],
so we reverted it [3].

This commit uses the refcount+RCU method [4] proposed by
by Dave Chinner to re-implement the lockless global slab
shrink. The memcg slab shrink is handled in the subsequent

Currently, the shrinker instances can be divided into
the following three types:

a) global shrinker instance statically defined in the kernel,
such as workingset_shadow_shrinker.

b) global shrinker instance statically defined in the kernel
modules, such as mmu_shrinker in x86.

c) shrinker instance embedded in other structures.

For case a, the memory of shrinker instance is never freed.
For case b, the memory of shrinker instance will be freed
after the module is unloaded. But we will call synchronize_rcu()
in free_module() to wait for RCU read-side critical section to
exit. For case c, the memory of shrinker instance will be
dynamically freed by calling kfree_rcu(). So we can use
rcu_read_{lock,unlock}() to ensure that the shrinker instance
is valid.

The shrinker::refcount mechanism ensures that the shrinker
instance will not be run again after unregistration. So the
structure that records the pointer of shrinker instance can be
safely freed without waiting for the RCU read-side critical

In this way, while we implement the lockless slab shrink, we
don't need to be blocked in unregister_shrinker() to wait
RCU read-side critical section.

The following are the test results:

stress-ng --timeout 60 --times --verify --metrics-brief --ramfs 9 &

1) Before applying this patchset:

 setting to a 60 second run per stressor
 dispatching hogs: 9 ramfs
 stressor       bogo ops real time  usr time  sys time   bogo ops/s     bogo ops/s
                           (secs)    (secs)    (secs)   (real time) (usr+sys time)
 ramfs            880623     60.02      7.71    226.93     14671.45        3753.09
          1 System Management Interrupt
 for a 60.03s run time:
    5762.40s available CPU time
       7.71s user time   (  0.13%)
     226.93s system time (  3.94%)
     234.64s total time  (  4.07%)
 load average: 8.54 3.06 2.11
 passed: 9: ramfs (9)
 failed: 0
 skipped: 0
 successful run completed in 60.03s (1 min, 0.03 secs)

2) After applying this patchset:

 setting to a 60 second run per stressor
 dispatching hogs: 9 ramfs
 stressor       bogo ops real time  usr time  sys time   bogo ops/s     bogo ops/s
                           (secs)    (secs)    (secs)   (real time) (usr+sys time)
 ramfs            847562     60.02      7.44    230.22     14120.66        3566.23
          4 System Management Interrupts
 for a 60.12s run time:
    5771.95s available CPU time
       7.44s user time   (  0.13%)
     230.22s system time (  3.99%)
     237.66s total time  (  4.12%)
 load average: 8.18 2.43 0.84
 passed: 9: ramfs (9)
 failed: 0
 skipped: 0
 successful run completed in 60.12s (1 min, 0.12 secs)

We can see that the ops/s has hardly changed.

[1]. https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20230313112819.38938-1-zhengqi.arch@xxxxxxxxxxxxx/
[2]. https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/202305230837.db2c233f-yujie.liu@xxxxxxxxx/
[3]. https://lore.kernel.org/all/20230609081518.3039120-1-qi.zheng@xxxxxxxxx/
[4]. https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/ZIJhou1d55d4H1s0@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx/

Signed-off-by: Qi Zheng <zhengqi.arch@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
 include/linux/shrinker.h |  6 ++++++
 mm/vmscan.c              | 33 ++++++++++++++-------------------
 2 files changed, 20 insertions(+), 19 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/shrinker.h b/include/linux/shrinker.h
index 7bfeb2f25246..b0c6c2df9db8 100644
--- a/include/linux/shrinker.h
+++ b/include/linux/shrinker.h
@@ -74,6 +74,7 @@ struct shrinker {
 	refcount_t refcount;
 	struct completion completion_wait;
+	struct rcu_head rcu;
 	void *private_data;
@@ -123,6 +124,11 @@ struct shrinker *shrinker_alloc_and_init(count_objects_cb count,
 void shrinker_free(struct shrinker *shrinker);
 void unregister_and_free_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker);
+static inline bool shrinker_try_get(struct shrinker *shrinker)
+	return refcount_inc_not_zero(&shrinker->refcount);
 static inline void shrinker_put(struct shrinker *shrinker)
 	if (refcount_dec_and_test(&shrinker->refcount))
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 6f9c4750effa..767569698946 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -57,6 +57,7 @@
 #include <linux/khugepaged.h>
 #include <linux/rculist_nulls.h>
 #include <linux/random.h>
+#include <linux/rculist.h>
 #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
 #include <asm/div64.h>
@@ -742,7 +743,7 @@ void register_shrinker_prepared(struct shrinker *shrinker)
 	refcount_set(&shrinker->refcount, 1);
-	list_add_tail(&shrinker->list, &shrinker_list);
+	list_add_tail_rcu(&shrinker->list, &shrinker_list);
 	shrinker->flags |= SHRINKER_REGISTERED;
@@ -800,7 +801,7 @@ void unregister_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
-	list_del(&shrinker->list);
+	list_del_rcu(&shrinker->list);
 	shrinker->flags &= ~SHRINKER_REGISTERED;
 	if (shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_MEMCG_AWARE)
@@ -845,7 +846,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(shrinker_free);
 void unregister_and_free_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
-	kfree(shrinker);
+	kfree_rcu(shrinker, rcu);
@@ -1067,33 +1068,27 @@ static unsigned long shrink_slab(gfp_t gfp_mask, int nid,
 	if (!mem_cgroup_disabled() && !mem_cgroup_is_root(memcg))
 		return shrink_slab_memcg(gfp_mask, nid, memcg, priority);
-	if (!down_read_trylock(&shrinker_rwsem))
-		goto out;
-	list_for_each_entry(shrinker, &shrinker_list, list) {
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	list_for_each_entry_rcu(shrinker, &shrinker_list, list) {
 		struct shrink_control sc = {
 			.gfp_mask = gfp_mask,
 			.nid = nid,
 			.memcg = memcg,
+		if (!shrinker_try_get(shrinker))
+			continue;
+		rcu_read_unlock();
 		ret = do_shrink_slab(&sc, shrinker, priority);
 		if (ret == SHRINK_EMPTY)
 			ret = 0;
 		freed += ret;
-		/*
-		 * Bail out if someone want to register a new shrinker to
-		 * prevent the registration from being stalled for long periods
-		 * by parallel ongoing shrinking.
-		 */
-		if (rwsem_is_contended(&shrinker_rwsem)) {
-			freed = freed ? : 1;
-			break;
-		}
-	}
-	up_read(&shrinker_rwsem);
+		rcu_read_lock();
+		shrinker_put(shrinker);
+	}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
 	return freed;

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